How is Deep Learning Used in Natural Language Processing (NLP)?

Natural Language Processing allows computers to understand textual data and spoken language in a manner close to humans. Deep learning methods such as neural networks, belief networks, and deep reinforcement learning greatly assist advanced machine learning processes such as Natural Language Processing (NLP). Mainly, Artificial Neural Networks or ANNs are extensively used to power implementations of NLP. Due to applications of deep learning such as NLP, it has been observed that machines can succeed in performing better than humans in analyzing speech, text, and materials.

How is Deep Learning Used in Natural Language Processing (NLP)

What is Deep Learning?

Fundamentally, deep learning is an implementation of advanced machine learning methodologies. Deep learning is generally powered by Artificial Neural Networks using representation learning frameworks. Deep Learning implementations can be unsupervised, supervised, and semi-supervised in nature, capable of being applied for speech recognition, text recognition, drug designing, machine translation, object inspection, video games, bioinformatics, and even medical analytics. Deep Learning can be further categorized as a sub-branch of Artificial Intelligence, fundamentally allowing machines to acquire the capability to perform tasks through advanced learning or training techniques.

Here are the 5 common architectures that are extensively used for deep learning:

● Deep Neural Networks

● Convolutional Neural Networks

● Recurrent Neural Networks

● Belief Networks

● Advanced Reinforcement Learning

ANNs can be simply defined as communication nodes that are distributed and interconnected to each other, emulating neural functions due to being inspired from actual neurons in human brains. These neural networks rely on information processing and communication between the members of the network. However, unlike actual human neurons, neural networks are more symbolic and static in nature. Deep learning relies on the existence of accumulated layers in these networks and the architectures of the learning framework not being linear in nature. Deep learning methods can work with infinite or limitless layers that have specified sizes. This allows deep learning to be used for real-world implementations that are practical, optimized, and theoretically universal. Layers are heterogeneous in deep learning and this allows machines with better understandability, higher efficiency and promotes understandability. 

How is Deep Learning Used in NLP?

Natural language processing can be very easily categorized into a projection of AI or Artificial Intelligence. Similar to other branches of AI, Deep Learning powers NLP by providing computers or machines with the ability to analyze spoken words or text in order to understand human languages and then respond (or commit an action). Deep Learning combines linguistic analytics powered by the computational modeling of human languages. This allows computers and services to understand how these languages are being used and in what context through machine learning, deep learning algorithms, and statistical analytics. Deep learning allows machines to be trained using voice or textual data in order to accurately comprehend the true intent of human communications or what the speaker means. With advanced NLP methodologies, computers can also understand the sentiment behind blocks/sets of communicational data or even subtle references.

For instance, human languages have many anomalies and ambiguities that make it harder for machines to accurately identify the true meaning behind text or voice inputs. Let’s take sarcasm, homonyms, metaphors, idioms, grammar, exceptions, and structural or usage variations as examples. These factors might confuse services or machines, thus affecting the result of language processing functions. This is why Deep Learning is important in order to truly perform NLP methods. Deep Learning allows machines to learn about all these irregularities that take decades for humans themselves to learn effectively and apply ML architectures such as neural networks in order to tackle language processing challenges.

Deep Learning also allows NLP-centric systems to conduct advanced language analytics to predict factors such as urgency, mood, demographics, or correlate market data. Deep Learning paves the way for NLP-backed methods to translate text or audio that is in one language to another language in real-time. ANNs and reinforcement learning methods are especially useful for advanced applications such as these that need to be run in real-time. For example, Google Translate and Google Assistant are great implementations of the combination of these techniques. Other instances of these techniques being applied in our daily lives can be observed in Navigation systems, virtual assistants, chatbots, speech-to-text applications, and artificial customer-service representatives that respond according to user interaction.

Let’s take the example of speech recognition to truly understand how important Deep Learning is in the case of NLP. Speech recognition relies on the conversion of voice input into textual data, thus needing to work past incorrect grammar, accents, dialects, local slangs, slurred words, and intonations. There are also differences in the structuring of sentences and also some cases of speakers using shortened conversational dialects as commands. This is why Deep Learning is used for making machines as accurate in tagging speech data and then determining the context and intent of the text data acquired from the audio.

So, how do ANNs and Deep Learning methodologies manage to do all of this? NLP, with the help of Deep Learning algorithms, statistics, and machine learning models automatically classify and then label objects or targets in textual or audio data, following up with assigning a statistical likelihood of all the probable meanings behind these objects or elements. Other neural networks such as RNNs and CNNs allow NLP systems to learn while functioning in real-time and keep upgrading themselves. Thus, they are only getting better with time and extracting even more accurate meanings from massive volumes of unstructured, raw, and unlabeled data sets that are in text or voice-data formats.

Conclusion:

Deep Learning allows machines to comprehend disambiguation better as well as using semantic analysis for determining the most accurate relations through its neural networks and correlating usage history. Deep Learning also powers a valuable complementary method to NLP known as NEM or Named Entity Recognition. NEM allows machines to justify instances where names or locations are identified as entities inside a set of textual or speech data. Similarly, sentiment analysis allows machines to determine subjective factors from conversations such as emotions, sarcasm, doubt, mood, confusion, attitude, and tone. Deep Learning helps with NLG as well, better known as Natural Language Generation, which allows the conversion of data into human language. In order to learn about how we can use architectures such as ANN to promote effective NLP, reputed deep learning training courses are highly recommended

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TechGlobeX: How is Deep Learning Used in Natural Language Processing (NLP)?
How is Deep Learning Used in Natural Language Processing (NLP)?
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